The cultivated area is 17.4 million ha, constituting almost half of the total area of the state. Over 70% area is rainfed with average precipitation of 575 mm. The soils are coarse and poor in fertility and the cropping intensity is 125% important crops of the state are pearl millet, maize, chickpea, mustard, cluster bean and spices. Soil salinity/alkalinity and poor quality groundwaters are constraints for enhancing productivity.
Rajasthan has the highest area under pearlmillet with the highest production in the country. The state occupies nearly 46 lakh ha area with average production of about 28 lakh tonnes and productivity of 400 kg/ha. The crop is grown as a sole crop as well as mixed crop or inter-cropped with legumes or sesame in the state. It is also grown as irrigated green fodder in summer. Major production constraints are low spread of improved varieties/ hybrids, poor seed establishment and low plant population, poor weed control, lack of adoption of agronomical practices, recurrent droughts and negligible area under irrigation (5.7%).
Rajasthan has the largest area of maize in India i.e. 1 million ha with production of 1.1 million tonnes and productivity of 1,100 kg / ha. The crop is predominantly cultivated under rain fed conditions in kharif season. In winter, cultivation is done in assured irrigated conditions. Maize is mainly used as a food crop in the state and productivity can be enhanced with cultivation of early maturing hybrids and improved composite varieties. Cultivation of QPM maize will help in elevation of protein level in food and feed. The major constraints in production are low productivity in Rajasthan due to non-availability of adequate quantity of early maturing drought tolerant hybrids and seeds of improved varieties. Incidence of downy mildew disease is also a concern.
Chickpea is the most important pulse crop in the state occupying 10.82 lakh ha with production of 4.79 lakh tonnes and average productivity 443 kg/ha. The constraints for higher productivity are frequent droughts, Fusarium wilt, Assochyta blight, root-knot nematodes and Helicoverpa pod borer.
This is an important industrial crop for gum and other industrial products, which is also used as green fodder vegetable. It is predominantly rainfed crop.
Rapeseed – mustard
The area, production and productivity under rapeseed-mustard in Rajasthan are 36.6 lakh ha, 44.1 lakh tonnes and 1,205 kg/ha, respectively. The major constraints in higher production are salt affected soil and poor quality irrigation water, moisture deficiency at seeding time, prevalence of higher temperature at sowing time and continuous adoption of fallow-mustard sequence in large area leading to orobanche and Sclerotinia rot problem.
Groundnut is cultivated in about 2.6 lakh ha, with an annual production of 3.4 lakh tonnes and productivity of 1,300 kg/ha. Frequent occurrence of end season drought and white grub damage are the major problems of this state, and advancement of sowing (premonosoon sowing) by a fortnight wherever irrigation facilities exist is recommended to escape drought.
Livestock and dairy provides sustainable agriculture and continuous income to farmers for their livelihood. Lack of fodder particularly in lean season and supply of quality seeds are the major constraints in the fodder production. The major fodder crops grown are Pearl Millet, Sorghum, Guar, Lucerne, Cowpea, Oat, Guinea grass, Dinanath, Dhaman and Sewan grass.
Aonla is a highly productive fruit crop, which suits agroclimatic conditions of Rajasthan. Its productivity is 10 tonnes/ha, which can be improved.
Ber is a major fruit crop of Rajasthan, which thrives very well under arid and semi-arid conditions. The low productivity is attributed to powdery mildew and fruit fly. The productivity can be improved.
Farm Tools and Equipment
The tools, equipment and technologies that will help in timely completion of farm operations, better placement of inputs and drudgery reduction, resulting in higher productivity in agriculture and post harvest processing in the state are: laser land leveler, rotavator, zero-till drill, happy seeder, vertical conveyor reaper, reaper binder, straw combine, high capacity multi-crop thresher, combine, pulse thresher, groundnut digger/shaker, ECS, modern ginning, modern grain milling, fish transport, solid-state biogas plant.
Rajasthan is rich in livestock wealth with 0.1 million crossbred cattle, 2.1 million non-descript cattle and 3.2 million buffaloes in milk, producing around 8.7 million tonnes of milk annually, and buffaloes are contributing the major share (5.2 million tonnes). Sheep, Goat and camels are major livestock resources of the state with a population of 10 million, 16 million and 0.5 million respectively. The state has a potential to further enhance productivity of cattle, buffalo, sheep, Goat and camel.
Rajasthan has rich aquatic resources to become a leading fish producer in the country, the prime fishery resource of the state being reservoirs to the tune of 1.53 lakh ha and ponds and tanks of 1.8. lakh ha. The annual fish production of the state is 14,300 tonnes and the mean fish yield from ponds under FFDA is 1.4 tonnes/ha/year. Reservoirs of Rajasthan nearly or completely dry out every year making them suitable for practicing culture-based fisheries. By following a proper stocking and recapture regime, these reservoirs can yield up to 100 kg/ha/year, while the present production is only about 25 kg/ha. Similar scope exists for improving the yield from pond aquaculture. The state has the potential to increase the annual fish production by several folds to more than 1 lakh tonne, that also has a high market potential with proximity to Delhi.
Technological interventions followed during Xth Plan & also to be pursued to some extent during XIth Five year plan.
STATE :- RAJASTHAN
· Demonstrating early maturing, disease resistant hybrids viz. RHB 121, RHB 127, HHB 67, GHB 558, ICMH 356, JBV-3, Raj-171, CZP-9802.
· Intercropping of pear millet + cluster bean/moth bean / Cow pea / green gram (2:1)
· Weed management with hand weeding / hoeing or atrazine
· Use of thio- urea
· Demonstrating of early maturing single cross hybrids and composite varieties PEHM 1, PEHM 2, Prakash, HM 2, Pratap Makka Hybrid 1, Mahi Kanchan, Mahi Dhawal, Navjot, GM-6 and GM-138, Aravali.
· Seed production in assured irrigated areas during winter and kharif season.
· Use of disease resistant varieties and seed treatment
· Growing HYVs like Raj-3037, Raj-3765, GW-496, GW-322.
· Effective nutrients management in crops.
· Growing HYvs like RD-2503, RD-2508, RD-2035, RD-2552.
· Optimum use of fertilizer in the crop.
· Demonstrating HYVs like RBU-38, PU-19, PU-35.
· Use of seed treatment with bio-fertilizer and fungicide.
· Use balance dose of fertilizer.
· Demonstrating HYVs like RMG-62, RMG-268, Mum-2, RMG-344, RMG-492.
· Use of seed treatment with bio-fertilizer and fungicide.
· Use balance dose of fertilizer.
· Demonstrating HYVs like RMG-40, RMO-257, G-8.
· Growing crop under rainfed farming situation.
· Demonstrating HYVs like ICPL-151, UPAS-120, Manak.
· Effective nutrient management in the crop.
· Effective plant protection measure for wilt & root rot control.
· Demonstrating HYVs like RC-19, FS-68, RC-101.
· Growing HYVs/Hybrid like H-10, HD-123, HO-117, RS-810, RS-2013, H-1117, CISSA-2, RCH-134, RS-2031, RS-8102, RCH-2, HyG Cot-6, 8,10.
· Effective plant protection measure for control of boll worm and sucking pests.
· Demonstrating improved production technologies.
· Efficient nutrient management in the crop.
· Growing of high-yielding varieties like RSG-888, KPG-59, RSG-44, GNG-469, GNG-663, ICCV-10, Vishal, ICCV-2, ICCV-88202, KAK-02, RSG-973, CSJD-884.
· Application of 20 kg sulphur and 25 kg ZnSO4 along with NPK
· Seed treatment with carbosulfan to control root knot nematode
· Adoption of bio-intensive IPM modules for managing pod borer
· Sprinkler / life saving irrigation at critical growth stages
· Growing of high-yielding varieties RGC 986, RGC 1003, RGC 1002, RGC 1017, RGM 11 and RGC 1038
· Seed soaking in 0.05% thio-urea followed by spraying 0.1% thio-urea
· Use of Rhizobium and PSB and zinc sulphate for higher yield
Rapeseed – Mustard
· Growing of varieties such as early sown (RGN -13, Urvashi), timely sown-irrigated (Bio-902, RGN 13, Pusa bold, RGN 73, RL 1359, Vasundhara, Laxmi), timely sown rainfed (RGN 48, Aravali).
· Replacing mustard by Taramira in areas where soil moisture is inadequate
· Crop rotation to reduce the infestation Orobanche
· Enhanced production by apiary boxes in mustard fields
· Intercropping of mustard with chickpea (1:4) and with lentil (1:6)
· Growing early maturing drought tolerant varieties like TG 37, GG 14, GG 2, CSMG 84-1, CSMG 884, TAG-24, DH-86, GG-2, GG-7, JL-24, MA-10, M-335, HNG-10.
· Intercropping with pearl millet and sesame (4:1)
· Grow disease tolerant varieties like TG 37, CSMG 884 and CSMG 84 1 to control high incidence of major discases stem collar rot, and peanut bud necrosis (PBND)
· Soil application of phorate @ 25 kg /ha or spraying of chlorpyriphos 1 kg a.i. / ha to control pests like white grub and termites
· Growing HYVs like JS-335, MACS-450, NRC-12, Pratap soya-1, NRC-37.
· Cost effective application of nutrients.
· Effective measure for control of tobacoo cator piller.
· PHT and Value addition of soya produce.
· Growing HYVs like RT-127, RT-125, RT-46, GS-2, RT-46
· Growing Castor as a commercial crop using variety RCH-1, DCS-9, Weston-6, GCH-4 & 5.
· Growing Karan & Meera varieties.
· For arid and semi-arid region – adoption of improved varieties of peart millet (Giant, Bajra, Raj Bajra Chari 2, AVKB 19), Guar (Bundel Guar 1, Bundel Guar 3, Guara 80, HFG 356), sorghum (Harasona 855, Safed Moti, GFS 4, CSH 20), lucerne (RL 88, Anand 2, Anand 1, Anand 3), Cowpea (UPC 5287, UPC 5286, UPC 618, UPC 622, CL367), oat (Bundel Jai 851, OL 125, UPO 212, UPO 94, Kent), guinea grass (PGG 14, PGG 616, PGG 101, Bundel G. grass 1), dinanath seeds
· Enahnced production and supply of quality seeds
· Round the year forage production from irrigated and rainfed lands .
· Use of varieties Narendra 6, Narendra 7, Krishna and Kanchan
· Planting of 10% pollenizer for better fruit setting
· Top working of unproductive orchards with high-yielding varieties
· Integrated nutrient management based on soil and leaf tissue analysis
· PHT and Value addition
· Use of varieties Gola, Seb, Mundia, Umran and Katha
· Use of Zizipbus rotundifolia as rootstock
· Drip irrigation for increasing water use efficiency
· In- situ budding
· Integrated pest management for controlling powdery mildew and fruit fly
· Use of HYVs in crops –
Ø Coriander – RCr-435, RCr-41, Hisar Surabhi, NRCSS-ACR-1.
Ø Cumin – RZ.223, Gujarat Cumin-4, RZ-19, RZ-209, G-2
Ø Fennel - RF-125, RF-143, Gujarat Fennel-11, Hisar Sawrup, NRCSS-AF-1.
Ø Fenugreek – RMT-305,RMT-1,NRCSS-AM-1, NRCSS-AM-2
Ø Ajowan - NRCSS-AA-1, NRCSS-AA-2.
Ø Isabgol – RI-89, GI-2.
Ø Use of bio fertilizers like Azospirillum @ 1.5 kg /ha
Ø PHT and value addition
Ø IPM for control of insect and pests
· Use of HYVs of brinjal, tomato, ladies fingure, cucurbits, chilli & cole crops.
· Use of poly house for nursery raising.
· Production and protective agro-techniques in vegetable.
· Seeds & seedling treatment with bavistin @ 2g per/kg of seed.
· Use of zero energy cool chamber to prolong the self life.